From the start of the 20th century Jewish social life in Den Haag was flourishing. Among many other clubs and associations there was a Jewish soccer club, a gymnastics association and various choires. The growth of these social entities was a reaction to the growing secularisation of the community. The Jews in Den Haag spread out from ‘De Buurt’ and an ever larger group -to various extents- turned their backs to the religion. The economy grew well and there were an increasing number of Jewish companies. The shops with Jewish owners were no longer just in ‘De Buurt’, but everywhere in the center of the city and also in areas further away. Chain stores like De Bijenkorf, HEMA, Maison de Bonneterie and the fashion store ETAM had Jewish owners.